The diseases associated Jav with vitamin D

Long extremely important role of vitamin D in the metabolism of calcium and phosphorus of bone are detailed research guys. Besides, vitamin D also has many other effects not associated with the metabolism of calcium, "noncalcemic", was Porn xxx recorded as the effect of reducing blood pressure, hardening of the spread, against swine flu and most recently the effects of some cancer prevention.




History of the discovery of vitamin D

In 1914, Edward Mellanby (uk), Elmer McCollum and Marguerite Davis (USA) noticed that the dogs be fed cod liver oil currency will not suffer rickets and they said that substances in fish oil is "vitamin A". In 1922, Elmer McCollum tested on dogs with cod liver oil have been destroying vitamin A results cod liver oil still has the ability to cure rickets, so McCollum factor for that cure is not vitamin A, and he named vitamin D in the order A, B, C, and in 1925 , Alfred Fabian Hess, Adolf Windaus found when irradiated for 7-dehydrocholesterol will synthesize vitamin D3 and Alfred Fabian Hess says, "vitamin D light". In 1928, Adolf Windaus, University of Göttingen, Germany, received the Nobel Prize in chemistry for this work.

The chemical structure, the supply and demand of vitamin D

Vitamin D is one of the four types of oil-soluble vitamins, A, D, E and k. chemical structure is the secosteroids, steroids have a double connection in snapped. Two types of mostly vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) and vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol).


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Vitamin D is found in many foods. This mainly vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) have in some species of fungi, plants.


Vitamin D also can sum up under the effect of ultraviolet in sunlight; and this is the main source of supply with the majority of people. This is the vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) are more in animal sources, the cod liver oil.


In the food industry, vitamin D3 is produced by shining ultraviolet on 7-dehydrocholesterol, then filtered and "enriched" foods such as milk, bread ...

As recommended by the U.S. Endocrine Society, daily vitamin D needs to develop good for bones, depending on ages are as follows:

* Babies up to age 1: at least 400 IU (*)/on (not exceeding 1,000 IU/day for infants up to 6 months, and 1,500 IU/day in infants 6 months to 1 year old)

* 1-18 Young age: at least 600 IU, preferably about 1,000 IU/day (not exceed 2,500 IU/day for children aged 1-3; 3,000 IU/day in children aged 4-8 and 4,000 IU/day the children above 8 years).

* The people from 19-70 age: at least 600 IU/day, best is 1,500-2,000 IU/day (but not exceed 4,000 IU/da)

* People over 70 years old: at least 800 IU/day, best is 1,500-2,000 IU/day (but not to exceed 4,000 IU/day



Vitamin D metabolism


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The body can synthesize vitamin D born the process of photosynthesis (photolytic) derivatives of cholesterol, 7-dehydrocholesterol, previtamin D forms, then from from metastable into vitamin D3. Vitamin D2, plant origin, was thanks to the process of irradiation of ergosterol.

Vitamin D from food sources or are synthetic skin from the sunlight yet active, on the body of vitamin D must be transformed, thanks to the activation of the enzyme conversion (hydroxyl) in the liver and kidneys.



Today, the role of vitamin D is no longer like the classic definition of vitamin that is the role of a true hormone: after the metabolism in the liver and kidney to become hormone form of vitamin D3, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, α 1, through receptors to perform various functions:

* The metabolism of calcium and phosphor: including the absorption of calcium, phosphate uptake in the intestine, mobilization of calcium in the bones, and calcium reabsorption in the kidney. Therefore, vitamin D has a major role in the metabolism of the skeleton: form and maintain strong bones.

Plasma calcium concentrations are maintained at a level of very stable, saturated with bone mineral. Vitamin D hormones to increase serum calcium concentrations through three distinct activities: (1) the absorption of calcium in the gut, (2) mobilize calcium when lacking in food by creating the core cells (osteoblasts) activation of the receptor-κB ligand (RANKL). The RANKL then stimulates the bone destruction (osteoclastogenesis) to mobilize calcium from the bone when absent in diets and (3) the renal tube far from being responsible for the absorption of calcium; normal exhaust filter to 7 g calcium each day.

Calcium-calcium concentration in the perceived protein parathyroid glands. When calcium levels drop below normal levels, the transmembrane proteins, along with a G-protein system, stimulating the secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH). PTH to create cells and bone cells to glide tube near the complex within a few seconds. The concentration of 1 α-hydroxylase increases will stimulate the absorption of calcium from the gut, in higher concentrations, stimulate the mobilization of calcium from bone and calcium reabsorption in the kidney. The cycle will reverse when serum calcium concentration increases: the cell C (C-cell) of the thyroid secretes

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